Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

Tetralogy of Fallot is made up of 4 defects: a hole between the two ventricles (VSD), a narrow pulmonary valve and artery (pulmonary stenosis), a misplaced aorta which is over both ventricles, and thicker muscles in the right ventricle.

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Pulmonary Atresia with VSD and MAPCAs

This is a 3D model from a neonate with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). This patient has 3 MAPCAs which are seen as the abnormal vessels arising from the aorta to supply the lungs. In this patient these vessels have areas of narrowing (stenosis). In this type of congenital heart disease, the patient is born without a pulmonary valve leaving no connection between the heart and the pulmonary arteries. The MAPCAs are formed by the body to supply blood to the lungs. The VSD allows blood to mix between the right and left ventricle.

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